Urinalysis Drug Testing
Enzyme Multiple Immunoassay Test (EMIT)
The most commonly used method of drug screening today. Detects five different substances by using the current standards of the Enzyme Multiple Immunoassay Test. (EMIT). This test conducts the standard cutoff levels for all the major drugs of abuse.
EMIT uses a spectrometer to monitor the conversion process of enzymes and provides the means to measure specific drug metabolites.
Two drug metabolites are used, one from the donor's urine, the other from the lab. These metabolites compete to bind with one antibody. The results from the screen are contingent upon which of the two metabolites bond with the antibody supplied by the lab. The result is based on which metabolite the antibody bonds with. A "Positive" result will come from a bonding process to the lab's metabolite while a "Negative" result will show no binding between the metabolites and the antibody.
Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer (GC MS)
This test is only administered after the EMIT screen has produced a positive test result. Or is mandated by a government as in all D. O. T drug testing. The GC-MS is a method that combines the Gas Chromatography and the Mass Spectrometry together to identify different substances in a specific sample. After a solution is added to the sample to convert the drug metabolites into a form that is reactive to Gas Chromatography. The sample is converted to gas at distinct intervals then ionized and accelerated with a electrical field where only certain particles will pass through. These escaping particles will then aid in determining the presence of drug metabolites in the donor's body.
GC-MS is the main tool used in all drug testing today, Including sports anti-doping and prohibited performance-enhancing drugs.
Saliva Drug Testing ( Oral Fluid )
Over the last decade saliva drug testing commonly know as (oral fluid ) is growing in popularity in today's work place. Due to the inherent advantages over the common urine drug test. A oral fluid drug test is a relatively non-invasive technique of collection that can be observed without embarrassment to the individual giving the sample.
As a result, oral fluid drug concentrations can provide information similar to that provided by plasma or a blood drug test. This test conducts the standard cutoff levels for all the major drugs of abuse in determining the presence of drug metabolites in the donor's body
Hair Follicle Drug Testing
A hair follicle test is an examination that uses a small sample of hair to identify specific drugs used by the person being tested. A hair follicle drug test measures the drug molecules and their specific metabolites that are produced only after the drug has been processed by the human body. After the drug is processed, trace amounts of its metabolites are inserted into hair follicle by the bloodstream. Hair drug testing can detect drug use over a much longer period of time over the standard urine test. This type of testing is preformed where there is a zero tolerance drug use policy.
The standard hair follicle screen covers a period of approximately 90 days, but is susceptible to time variation depending on the growth rate of your hair. The hair sample is cut as close to the scalp as possible and the most recent 3.9cm (or 1.5 inches) are tested. It is possible to go back even further than 90 days since the time period is limited only by the length of the hair sample, but is standardized to 90 day's of history.
Hair test are conducted using the GC-MS cutoff levels for all the major drugs of abuse in determining the presence of drug metabolites in the donor's hair.
Blood Drug Testing
Blood drug testing measures whether or not a drug or a drug metabolite is in one body at a particular time. These type of drug tests are considered to be the most accurate way of telling if a person is intoxicated or has a particular drug in there system. Blood drug tests are not used regularly because of the high cost of performing the test. All blood tests require specialized equipment along with medically trained personal to perform the test.
Blood test are conducted using the GC-MS cutoff levels for all the major drugs of abuse in determining the presence of drug metabolites in the donor's blood.